Bridge expansion joints – efficiency and materials

1.1 Introduction

Expansion joints are used in bridges to permit movements like growth and contraction between your bridge deck spans and abutments. These movements are caused due to temperature, soil settlements, motor vehicle acceleration and other causes (Klaiber, et al., 1987 and Dagher, et al., 1993 as cited in Thippeswamy, 2002). Growth joints are put through severe loading due to the direct effect of the wheels. They certainly are a very important element of a bridge structure and if cautiously designed, effectively installed and reasonably taken care of will give a hassle free performance for many years. Though joints are made from various resources like rubber, silicone and polymer they deteriorate since they are constantly subjected to impact, vibration of traffic and natural factors like water, dust, ultra violet rays and ozone (Chang & Lee 2002). The strength of expansion joints is a major concern to bridge owners. The maintenance price of joints is fairly high than the initial cost .This led to the look of jointless bridges. Jointless bridges usually do not develop stress due to corrosion of joints, accumulation of particles and differential elevation of joints (Thippeswamy, 2002). The behaviour of the jointless bridges not known and the patterns being complicated are not implemented regardless of their positive aspects. This literature review handles: characteristics of a good expansion joint that must be noted while style a joint, defects seen in expansion joints, survey studies conducted on existing joints to study their behaviour and some manufactures of bridge growth joints in the industry. Studies on improving the performance of expansion joints is conducted, exploration on reducing the price tag on repair of the joints should be conducted.

1.2 Attributes of an excellent expansion joint

A bridge expansion joint for proper functioning must have the opportunity to: accommodate actions in vertical and horizontal way; withstand applied loads; withstand skid and corrosion; operate silently with less repair (Lee, 1994). Price (1984) shows that the effectiveness of a joint is usually influenced by structural moves of the joint in horizontal and vertical direction, traffic loading, products used, condition of the substrate, weather condition and temp during joint set up, workmanship and overall performance of bearings.

1.3 Commonly noticed joint defects

Guzaltan (1993) as cited in (Chang & Lee 2002) studied some typically observed defects in growth joints. They include harmed seals, accumulation of particles in the joint elements, rusting of metallic plates and nuts, cracking of concrete, corrosion of steel reinforcement, drinking water leakage, improper joint alignment and joint vibration during auto passage. Fincher (1983) as cited in (Chang & Lee 2002) presents the effects of a study conducted by Government Highway Administration during a five year evaluation period which demonstrated that 60% of the growth joints examined leaked. On top of that, Wallbank (1989) as cited in (Lee, 1994) explains that in a survey conducted on two hundred bridges by The London Division of Transfer, the deterioration of the growth joints was caused because of leaking and faulty drainage particulars. Chang and Lee (2002) conducted a study to observe the performance of joints in Indiana and found that some joints failed because of cracks in the seal and recommended testing it before unit installation. Fault tree modelling was employed for qualitative description of bridge element interaction but could possibly be used limited to catastrophic failures (Attoh- Okine & Bowers 2006). These versions aren’t applicable to bridges given that they fail over a protracted period of time. Fault tree designs were also made by LeBeau and Wadia-Fascetti (2000) and Sianipar and Adams (1997) as cited in (Attoh- Okine & Bowers 2006). A fresh deterioration modelling predicated on belief networks that successfully get and illustrate the hierarchical, interaction and uncertainty elements present in bridge deterioration was developed by Attoh- Okine and Bowers (2006). Belief systems are also called Bayesian belief networks and so are based on Baye’s theory. The belief network approach is appropriate than fault tree analysis because it can be used to research the elements of a bridge incorporating deck material, girders, bearings and abutments have got a great influence on deterioration.

1.4 Studies conducted on the efficiency of existing expansion joints

Chang and Lee (2002) conducted a report to observe the performance of the various joints found in the highway bridges in Indiana. Five popularly utilized joints were: compression seal (B.S), strip seal (S.S), essential abutment (I.A), poured silicone (X.J.S) and polymer altered asphalt (P.M.A). The info was obtained from questionnaire study, analysis of Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) roadway management data and expert interviews. Questionnaire study was conducted giving questionnaires to the express bridge inspectors and engineers around Indiana. The issues with joints had been encountered and possible improvements were suggested. The research of historical data using logistic regression strategy discovered that S.S joint got the very best performance. The experienced interviews consider My spouse and i.A joint to provide good results and advise improvement of B.S and S.S joints. An inspection campaign was conducted on 150 expansion joints of 71 street bridges in Brisa, Portugal where in fact the maintenance price reached a peak of 25% (Lima & Brito 2009). The joints installed within the traffic lane of the bridge were considered. The expansion joints were characterised based on their type, and age of the bridge. It was documented that the joints applied more often included reinforced elastomeric cushion joints, elastomeric adaptable strips, and asphaltic plug joints. The data acquired from the inspection plan was statistically analysed. The outcomes showed that joints that were replaced mostly frequently had been elastomeric joints and that unique joints have specific maintenance needs. The changeover strip and the anchorage cavities of the expansion joint will be the parts that require more maintenance. It had been likewise observed that the problems during installation and lack of maintenance induced pathology of the joint. The effects of campaign conducted display that there was a lot of improvement in the commercial expansion joints and implies investigation on the new or improved devices and materials. It also suggested that easy systems with fewer pieces are more trusted and require less maintenance. Asphalt bridge growth joints when used in cool countries cracked within the initial two years. To enhance the performance the professional MEIJIA asphalt binder was modified with polymers: thermoplastic rubber and rubber (Yu, et al., 2009). The polymers were used in different combinations, and their performance at low temperatures is normally evaluated by conducting exams incorporating: ductility, penetration, indirect tension and bending lab tests. The info from ductility and penetration tests performed on binders indicated that the durability and deformation ability at low temps improved. Four expansion joints made with the altered asphalt mixtures were set up on two bridges in a frosty region and discovered that the joints showed very good performance.

1.5 Evaluation of expansion joint efficiency using monitored data

A study was conducted by to develop an operation for verification of the design and evaluating the health of growth joint by monitoring joint displacement and bridge temperatures on a long term (Ni, et al., 2002). This method was applied to Ting Kau, cable connection stayed bridge in Hong Kong. The service lifestyle and replacement of joint depends upon the cumulative displacement. An accurate prediction of the cumulative displacement provides enough time interval for joint inspection or joint replacement unit. Monitoring the thermal activities at the growth joints and evaluating them with the look values provide verification on design. The whole system had a lot more than 230 sensors like anemometers, accelerometers, displacements transducters to assess displacements located at the ends of the deck, temperature sensors, stress gauges, weight in motion sensors and global positioning system. A good correlation between your movement of the expansion joints and effective temperature was noticed. The daily average cumulative displacements of the growth joints in the bridge are significantly less than design values. Also monitoring systems had been implemented on many bridges in various countries by (Andersen & Pedersen 1994; Cheung et al. 1997; Barrish et al. 2000; Sumitro et al. 2001; Mufti 2002; Koh et al. 2003; Wong 2004) as cited in (Ni et al. 2002).

1.6 Aftereffect of SSI and ground action spatial variation

Chouw and Hao (2008(a)) studied the effects of soil-structure interaction (SSI) and ground motion spatial variation influence on bridge pounding responses for bridges with a traditional growth joint between adjacent girders. The study was executed on two adjacent bridge frames. It was confirmed that structures that are built on stiff soils may encounter bigger pounding forces than those on delicate soils. It was also examined that loss of ground movement correlation caused much larger pounding responses. Numerical simulation was executed by nonlinear powerful response examination and investigated pounding mitigation and avoidance of unseating in the highway bridges due to seismic forces (Raheem, 2009). It had been noticed that seismic pounding generates drastically higher magnitude and brief duration acceleration pulses than typically assumed style magnitude. This effects in serious impact forces that harm structural members just like the deck or pier. And also the ramifications of SSI and bridge pounding response for bridges with modular growth joint system (MEJS) were observed (Chouw & Hao 2008(b)). It had been concluded that the girders with a large gap of a MEJS caused stronger impact forces. It had been found that need for nonuniform ground motions depends on the properties of the ground motions, subsoil and the structures.

1.7 Types of Expansion Joints

1.7.1 Selection of joint type

The type of joint is selected depending on the movement predicted for serviceability limit state. Several type of joint may be suitable for a specific range of movement. The movement collection which should not be exceeded for every single expansion joint is granted in Desk 1.

Table 1. Selection of joint type (Division of Transport, 1989)

Joint Type

Total acceptable longitudinal movement

Maximum acceptable vertical movement (mm)

Maximum (mm)

Minimum(mm)

Buried Joint under constant surfacing

5

20

1.3

Asphaltic plug joint

5

40

3

Nosing joint with poured sealant

5

12

3

Nosing with preformed compression seal

5

40

3

Reinforced Elastomeric

5

*

3

Elastomeric in metal runners

5

*

3

Cantilever comb or tooth joint

25

*

3

* Maximum benefit varies according to company or joint type

1.7.2 Modular bridge expansion joint

Modular expansion joint is used when the joint activity exceeds 100mm.The modular growth joint has many positive aspects including: water-tightness, corrosion protection, great potential as they increase the life of concrete and metal bridges (Crocetti & Edlund 2003), greater moves in translation and rotation. It could accommodate

the 3d movements without generating additional stresses or strains in the load-bearing customers or in adjacent bridge or abutment structures.

1.7.2.1 Noise generation in a modular growth joint

The traffic generates extra noise on bridges than on roads, as sound is produced on the top and bottom of the deck. The noise made from a modular growth joint under car passage is louder than those of ordinary growth joints (Ravshanovich, et al., 2007). The device of noise generation for a modular bridge expansion joint which causes noises pollution was studied by conducting tests on a complete scale model of a joint. A number of car-running experiments were executed on the joint and studied its noise and vibration features. A modal analysis of the joint is conducted using finite factor modelling. It had been observed that the frequency of the noise generated above the joint varies from 500 to 800Hz because of sudden change in atmosphere pressure within the gap formed by rubber sealing with the middle beams. The regularity is less than 200Hz below the joint due to the sound radiation as a result of bending vibration modes of the middle beams being excited by an impact force from the car wheels. Similarly a numerical investigation was executed on a modular growth joint of an expressway bridge to understand the generation and radiation system (Ghimire, et al., 2009). The numerical analysis was conducted applying finite aspect method.

1.7.2.2 Overall performance of Modular expansion joint

Modular joints be capable of cope with large thermal growth and contraction of large bridges (Chouw & Hao 2008(b)). They are capable of preventing girder pounding during good earthquakes. A sophisticated joint was modelled to study the dynamic response testmyprep of a modular bridge growth joint (Crocetti and Edmund, 2003). The vertical loads perpendicular to the roadway plane had been considered. Horizontal loads had been eliminated since the excitation mechanism was complex and the behaviour of the joint in the horizontal route was stochastic in persona. A single fatigue evaluation was performed. Data from the discipline tests including measurement of wheel load distribution factors, horizontal and vertical wheel loads, perseverance of damping and pure frequencies were obtained from Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The consequence of the fatigue test carried out agreed with the S-N curve plotted for welded interconnection between the support bar and the center beam recommended by Dexter, et al. (1997) cited in (Crocetti & Edmund 2003). Additionally an experimental investigation was performed to study the fatigue performance of a welded multiple support bar modular bridge growth joint (Chaallal, 2006). The welded multiple support bar modular bridge growth joint was found in the rehabilitation of Jacques Cartier Bridge in Montreal. The vertical and horizontal loads had been considered unlike (Crocetti & Edmund 2003) which is usually more practical since the expansion joints are put through both vertical and horizontal loads. Experimental lab tests were conducted on three subassemblies of the modular joint for numerous loads and S-N curve was plotted.

1.8 Producers of Expansion joints

1.8.1 The Bridge Joint Association

Bridge Joint Association (BJA) prepares standards and current practice bedding. It comprises of producers and installers of bridge growth joints which include: ASL CONTRACTS LTD, FREYSSINET LTD, GRACE CONSTRUCTION Items LTD, Highways Maintenance Experts LTD and MAURER LTD (Bridge Joint Association, 2009).

1.8.2 Watson Bowman Acme Corporation

Watson Bowman Acme Corporation (WBA) within 1950 isa known innovator in the development and manufacture of growth joint controlsystems. Some of the joints created by WBA include:

Wabo®Crete SiliconeSeal – This is a higher performance expansion joint system that uti­lizes a two-part sealant between elastomeric concrete headers made of Wabo®Crete II with the capacity of absorbing affect loads. The headers happen to be coupled with Wabo®SiliconeSeal produce it a perfect expansion joint system that is adopted in the industry for new structure or service of existing joints. Wabo®Crete II elastomeric cement is trusted in header applications for bridges and parking structures. Polyurethane is utilized in the header material to minimize edge spalling associated with high affect loads while attaining superior bonding capacities. The Wabo®SiliconeSeal is definitely a cold applied self levelling sealant requires no priming which simplifies & acceler­ates the installation process. Wabo®Crete SiliconeSeal system is qualified under US Patent Zero 5.190.395. This joint is usually adopted for applications with a optimum movement selection of +100% / -50% of the joint gap (Watson Bowman Acme, 2007).

Wabo®Crete FlexFoam – This is an armorless growth joint system that’s made with closed-cell foam joint seal set up with epoxy adhesive between an impact absorbing elastomeric concrete header. The high cushioning, ambient cured and self-levelling homes of the Wabo®Crete II joint header allows for the joint system to mono­lithically bond to the deck creating a watertight program. Employing an elastomeric concrete joint header achieving superior bonding ca­pabilities and minimizing border spalling (Watson Bowman Acme, 2007).

Wabo®Expandex – That is a adaptable asphaltic plug joint system made to accommodate minimum structure motion while providing a simple transition between your ap­proach pavement and the bridge deck. Wabo®Expandex can be used commonly at abut­ments or asphalt overlays due to its unique asphalt compatibility. The machine combines the utilization of a visitors bearing plate with particular aggregate reinforced altered elastomeric material (Watson Bowman Acme, 2007).

Jeene® – This joint system consists of a neoprene profile, which is certainly air-pressurized and bonded set up with a specifically formulated epoxy advertisement­hesive. With properly set up, the Jeene® joint program will not tear aside, protrude out of, or slip from its classic position on contact with repeated mechanical or thermal moves. Complete adhesion of the epoxy to the account and joint wall structure is achieved because of the air inflation during assembly. Jeene® may be the most long-lasting, versatile, cost-powerful and watertight growth joint (Watson Bowman Acme, 2007).

Wabo®HSeal – That is a pre-compressed elastomeric coated expansion joint system de­signed to provide a long lasting weather tight seal. The system is sealed set up with an epoxy, which allows it to accommodate horizontal, vertical, and skew growth joint movements. Wabo®HSeal involves a micro-cell, steady to UV, reboundable foam impregnated with a hydrophobic polymer and topped with a site visitors grade elastomeric coating. The im­pregnated foam offers a valuable secondary water-tight seal in case the principal elastomeric covering is damaged. This technique is supplied in pre-compressed sticks for convenient assembly (Watson Bowman Acme, 2007).

Wabo®Flex – That is a molded rubber cushion expansion joint which is designed to accommodate structure actions from 2 ins up to 13 inches. In Wabo®Flex system the molded rubber cushions happen to be metal reinforced and imbedded with corrosion-resistant aluminium don plates. Tongue and grooves by the end of every rubber cush­ion guarantee a watertight connection and prevent uplift or separation (Watson Bowman Acme, 2007).

Wabo®TransFlex – That is an original reinforced elastomeric molded rubber growth joint system. All sections have tongue and groove fixtures for tight end-to-end mating across decks and at curbs and so are steel reinforced. It really is installed in innovative decks, or in more aged structures on rehabilitation projects. These joint systems easily adapt to skew angles. Wabo®TransFlex system will support anticipated thermal moves reject particles and create an even, smooth-riding, wear-resistant surface if properly mounted (Watson Bowman Acme, 2007).

Wabo®Seismic WeatherSeal – That is a pre-compressed elastomeric covered ex­pansion joint program that works under its constant internal pressure to provide a weather condition resistant seal. The machine contains an open-cell foam seal im­pregnated with a hydrophobic polymer sealing compound. Wabo®Seismic WeatherSeal can be utilized on applications which cause simple thermal actions or on applications where seismic activity is usually anticipated. The Wabo®Seismic WeatherSeal system is recommended for employ on all in­terior and outside wall, ceiling and soffit growth joint applications (Watson Bowman Acme, 2007).

The joint systems created by Watson Bowman Acme Corporation are compared as shown in Table 2, regarding their features and their recommended spot of implementation.

Table 2: Comparison between the various joints created by WBA.

Joint

Features

Recommended for

Wabo®Crete SiliconeSeal

Watertight system, rapid installation, Cold applied, Expansion joint applications with a optimum movement range of +100% / -50% of the joint gap

Horizontal growth joint applications on bridges and highways.

Wabo®Crete FlexFoam

Accommodates movement routine through compression and pressure, Minimizes dirt or particles accumulation

Horizontal expansion joint applications on bridges and interstate highways.

Wabo®Expandex.

Provides smooth riding surface, could be milled or planed during resurfacing procedures, joint openings with movements up to +/- 0.75" at time of installation

Sealing joints on secondary highway bridge structures.

Joint

Features

Recommended for

Jeene® .

Accommodates forces connected with multi-directional actions, resists hydrostatic pressure, Accommodates thermal movement

Sealing joints on bridges roadways and tunnels.

Wabo®HSeal

Can accommodate horizontal, vertical and skew expansion joint movements, easy installation

Sealing joints on bridges, sound wall & barriers

Wabo®Flex

maximum friction, prevents particles accumulation, decreases deflection under visitors load­ing, maximum activity of 13 inches

Bridge decks and ramps, Low elevation joint sealing restrictions

Wabo®TransFlex

Watertight connection, stop uplift or separation maximum movement of 13 inches

Low elevation joint sealing restrictions bridges, decks and ramps

Wabo®Seismic WeatherSeal

seismic movement capability, conditions resistant, self-expanding

non-laminated construction, accommodates movements up to +/- 50%

Stadiums, parking garages,

Replacing failed joints

1.8.3 Common Sealants Limited

Universal Sealants limited (USL) focuses on engineering of bridges, tunnels, rail and other main structures. It manufactures items and installs consultant construction goods including: bridge expansion joints; membranes for bridge deck waterproofing; defensive coatings; concrete mend and carpark refurbishment work. Some growth joints offered by USL include:

Uniflex expansion joints – This system uses a butyl rubber membrane, bonded to the concrete and asphalt surfaces with Uniflex epoxy adhesive to supply an efficient and long term joint that is easily installed. The machine accommodates a variety of conditions from those experienced on an asphalt-covered traffic-free roofing, to bridge decks with sheet membrane, spray on covering or asphalt waterproofing, and yes it can be utilized with two level mastic asphalt or brick paving devices. The Uniflex system is certainly chemically inert and completely impervious to water and drinking water vapour. In buried joints the membrane is totally protected by the putting on surface. Uniflex membrane won’t deteriorate during its service and the combo of a straightforward design and proven parts makes the system naturally long-lasting and very well up to certain requirements of modern setting up and civil engineering practice (Common Sealants UK Ltd, 2009).

Febajoint – This joint is normally fully registered with the Highways Firm, Scottish Executive and Welsh Assembley (BD 33/94: Joint Type 2) suitable for all class roads and motorways. The joint is certainly nominally

500mm wide rather than less than 100mm deep which will provide optimum movement capacity of +/- 20mm. The materials are applied popular and in a liquid condition, with temperatures up to 180°C. Careful considerations should be created by the engineer before applying this joint. Binder compounds use thermoplastic materials that have polymer altered bitumen, mineral fillers and chemical additives (Universal Sealants UK Ltd, 2009).

FEBA HM expansion joints – The machine is fully registered with the united kingdom Highways Agency for type 2 application. It is a high modulus flexible, waterproof asphaltic plug joint. The primary feature of this system carries a resistance to ‘wheel monitoring’. This joint is ideal for a maximum horizontal design and style activity of ±20mm. The ‘FEBA HM’ system should be considered in places of large traffic volumes, regular standing traffic or large loading. The elements are applied sizzling hot and in fluid condition, with temperatures up to 180°C. Binder substances are categorized as thermoplastic resources and contain polymer modified bitumen, mineral fillers and chemical additives (General Sealants UK Ltd, 2009).

Nosing Joint (NJ) program – This joint program is a great for maintenance conditions and has been developed to provide a whole life financial option for applications where asphalt plug joints will be unsuitable and is authorized with the united kingdom Highways Agency, The Scottish Executive and Welsh Assembly. A surface attached nosing joint with an elastomeric place bonded to the quick curing elastomeric compound referred to as Britflex® Resin Mortar (General Sealants UK Ltd, 2009).

The Transflex, Waboflex and Euroflex – These joints happen to be registered with the UK Highways Company, the Scottish Executive and the Welsh Assembly for use on highway bridge decks (BD 33/94: Joint Type 5). These joints will be reinforced elastomeric comprising of metal angles and a steel bridging plate program encased in a versatile elastomer. The movements which might be accommodated change from 38mm to 330mm in structures incorporating: All sorts of highway structures, carpark decks, footbridges and podium decks (Common Sealants UK Ltd, 2009).

The Britflex® BEJ Expansion Joint – These joints happen to be registered with the UK Highways Agency, Scottish Executive and Welsh Assembley for use on bridge decks on all classes of roads and motorways. (Department of Transport BD33/94: Joint Type 6). This system is ideal for maintenance projects where there’s a have to replace failed systems. The major advantage of this technique is its rate of assembly on-site (Universal Sealants UK Ltd, 2009).

Londitudinal Joint (LJ) program – This system has been developed to provide an effective method of sealing longitudinal growth gaps and soffits. This joint accommodates both longitudinal and vertical movement and also offers a considerably watertight seal. The LJ joint program works extremely well as a waterproof go over joint or as a drainage channel under joint with the service to set up drainage outlets in to the system (Common Sealants UK Ltd, 2009).

Table 3: Comparison between the various joints created by USL.

Joint

Type

Features

Uniflex Expansion Joints

Type 1-Buried joint under continuous surfacing

Impervious to drinking water and normal water vapour, long-lasting, simple design

Joint

Type

Features

Febajoints

Type 2-Asphaltic Plug joint

Provides optimum movement capacity of +/- 20mm, joint for make use of on highway bridges

FEBA HM Expansion Joints

Type 2-High Modulus Asphaltic Plug joint

Can accommodate impact loads, maximum horizontal design movement of ±20mm

Nosing Joint system

Type 4-Nosing with preformed compression seal

Rapid Unit installation, No drilling of deck, can only just be used www.testmyprep.com in the problem where the gap at carriageway level will not exceed 65mm.

Transflex, Waboflex and Euroflex Growth Joints

Type 5-Reinforced Elastomeric

Accommodating movement from 38mm to 330mm. used for carpark decks, footbridges, podium deck.

Britflex® BEJ Expansion Joints

Type 6-Elastomeric in metal runners

Rapid on site assembly, less future repair costs, simple to install

Longitudinal Joints

Longitudinal Joint System

can accommodate both longitudinal and vertical movements, rapid installation, low maintenance, cost effective , watertight seal

1.8.4 Stirling Lloyd

Stirling Lloyd specialise in the production, manufacture and request of high-effectiveness waterproofing and structural coverage membranes and devices. They deal with highway and rail bridge decks and tunnels, to commercial building advancements, car parks and highway repair solutions. A number of the joints manufactured by Stirling Lloyd contain:

Sentinel® B – This joint contains a PVC flashing strip designed for various activity ranges. The flashing is bonded across the expansion gap and incorporated into the Eliminator® water proofing program to create a continous waterproofing detail below the asphalt surfacing. This accomodates a activity range of 0-20mm (Stirling Lloyd Group Plc, 2009).

Sentinel®Nosing Joint – This joint is designed for small movements in high loads. This can be a surface installed nosing joint having a central pre-formed compression seal, bonded between nosings of a higher strength mortar. This joint system is employed for highway bridges, car parks and buildings. It accommodates a activity range of 5- 40mm (Stirling Lloyd Group Plc, 2009).

Sentinel ®EMR – This joint contains a surface on which a mechanical system is mounted which includes a central elastomeric seal inserted into two metal carrier rails that happen to be bonded to the bridge deck with resin mortar. This joint is ideal for both new structure and refurbishment functions. The movement range is usually 5-150mm (Stirling Lloyd Group Plc, 2009).

Sentinel®LEJ – This joint is definitely created for bridging gaps between adjacent structures, featuring a watertight flexible seal in areas that aren’t subject to direct site visitors load. The joint is normally cost effective, quick to set up and appropriate for Eliminator® bridge deck normal water proofing continuity between structures. The movement spectrum can be upto 220mm and vertical displacement up to 180mm (Stirling Lloyd Group Plc, 2009).

Table 4 : Comparison between the various joints manufactured by Stirling Lloyd.

Joint

Type

Movement Range

Sentinel ® B

Type 1 buried joints

5mm – 20mm

Sentinel ®NJ

Type 4 Nosing Joint

5mm – 40mm

Sentinel ®EMR

Type 6 Elastomeric in metal rails

5mm – 150mm

Sentinel ®LEJ

Longitudinal Expansion Joint

5mm-220mm

1.9 Sealants

Seal can be used to go over the gaps between the beams and make sure the drinking water tightness of the joint. It defends the structural components below. An elastomeric silicone foam sealant and solid foam sealant very similar to Wabo silicone seal originated in order to provide an economical and long lasting bridge growth joint seal (Malla, et al., 2007). The various tests including pressure, compression, shear, bonding, stress relaxation, cure amount, tack-free time and drinking water tightness were conducted on the sealants to determine their materials and mechanical characteristics. Foam sealant was located to have more desirable features compared to solid sealant including: surge in volume on healing, stiffness and better extensibility and more resistance to fatigue. It is suggested that further studies linked to seals are to be conducted on temperatures, weathering, shrinkage, water absorption and extended- term aging.

1.10 Conclusions and Recommendations

The main objective of the study was to review released literature on the functionality of expansion joints and the resources that were found in commercial growth joints. Overall, pursuing conclusions are drawn:

* Several defects in the joints have been identified and the efficiency of growth joints has been enhancing over time.

* Different materials were experimented in the joints to gain obtain the most like water tightness, optimum moves in both horizontal and vertical directions and durable to all or any weather conditions.

Research on bridge growth joints has got been concentrated on bettering the effectiveness of the joints. However, further studies ought to be made on investing in the study of new or better systems and supplies, with special focus on the components used. The make use of recycled materials like crumb rubber reduces the maintenance cost of growth joints.

1.11 References

Attoh-Okine, N. O. and Bowers, S., 2006. A Bayesian belief network style of bridge deterioration. Proceedings of the Organization of Civil Engineers Bridge Engineering, 159(2), 69-76.

Chaallal, O., Sieprawski, G. and Guizani, L., 2006. Fatigue Performance of Modular Growth Joints for Bridges. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 33(8), 921-932.

Chang, L. M. and Lee, Y. J., 2002. Evaluation of overall performance of bridge deck growth joints. Journal of Functionality of Constructed Facilities, 16(1), 3-9.

Chouw, N. and Hao, H., 2008(a). Significance of SSI and nonuniform near-fault surface motions in bridge response I: Effect on response with conventional growth joint. Engineering Structures, 30 (1), 141-153.

Chouw, N. and Hao, H., 2008(b). Need for SSI and nonuniform near-fault floor motions in bridge response II: Influence on response with modular growth joint. Engineering Structures, 30 (1), 154-162.

Crocetti, R. and Edlund, B., 2003. Fatigue Overall performance of modular bridge growth joints. Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 17(4), 167-176.

Department of Transport, 1989. Expansion joints for work with in highway bridge decks. Department Standard BD 33/88.

Ghimire, J. P., Matsumoto, Y., Yamaguchi, H. and Kurahashi, We., 2009. Numerical investigation of noise era and radiation from an existing modular growth joint between prestressed concrete bridges. Journal of Audio and Vibration, 328(2), 129-147.

Lee, D. J., 1994. Bridge Bearings and Growth Joints. 2nd Ed. London: E & FN SPON.

Lima, J. M. and Brito, J., 2009. Inspection survey of 150 growth joints in highway bridges. Engineering Structures, 31(5), 1077-1084.

Malla, R. B., Shaw, M. T., Shrestha, M. R. and Brijmohan, S. B., 2007. Advancement and Laboratory Analysis of Silicone Foam Sealant for Bridge Expansion joints. Journal of Bridge Engineering, 12(4), 438-448.

Ni, Y. Q., Hua, X. G., Wong, K. Y. and Ko, J. M., 2007. Evaluation of Bridge Growth Joints Using Long-Term Displacement and Heat Measurement. Journal of Overall performance of Constructed Facilities, 21(2), 143-151.

Price, A. R., 1984. The performance operating of bridge expansion joints. TRRL Record LR 1104, Transportation and Road Research Laboratory, Crowthorne.

Raheem, S. E. A good., 2009. Pounding mitigation and unseating prevention at growth joints of isolated multi-period bridges. Engineering Structures, 31(10), 2345-2356.

Ravshanovich, K. A good., Yamaguchi, H., Matsumoto, Y., Tomida, N. and Uno, S., 2007. Mechanism of noise technology from a modular growth joint under vehicle passage. Engineering Structures, 29(9), 2206-2218.

Thippeswamy, H. K., GangaRao, H. V. S. and Franco, J. M., 2002. Performance Evaluation of Jointless bridges. Journal of Bridge Engineering, 7(5), 276-289.

Yu, T., Li, C. P. E. and Wu, S., 2009. Performance of Polymer Modified Asphalt Bridge Growth Joints in Low-Temperature Regions. Journal of Functionality of Constructed Facilities, 23(4), 227-233.

Bridge Joint Association, 2009. Directory of Customers. [Online] Offered by: http://www.bridgejoints.org.uk/members/memberslist.htm [Accessed 7 December 2009].

Watson Bowman Acme Company, 2007. Bridge and Highway Maintenance Expansion Joint Systems Brochure. [Online] Available at: http://www.wbacorp.com/downloads/Bridge%20Maintenance%20brochure-webopt.pdf [Accessed 7 December 2009].

Universal Sealants UK Ltd, 2009. Bridge Growth joints. [Online] Offered by: http://www.usluk.com/bridgecare/shop/2-Bridge-Expansion-Joints [Accessed 7 December 2009].

Stirling Lloyd Group Plc, 2009. Expansion Joint Systems. [Online] Offered by: http://www.stirlinglloyd.com/joints/Default.htm [Accessed 7 December 2009].